VMFA’s permanent galleries of Early 20th-Century European Art bring together works from the collections of Ludwig and Rosy Fischer and T. Catesby Jones for the first time. The T. Catesby Jones Collection includes leading figures in French art such as Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and André Masson. Its debut in a 1948 exhibition marked VMFA’s initial foray into Modernism. More than fifty years later, the museum acquired the Fischer Collection, the last great refugee collection to enter a museum in America. With outstanding examples of German Expressionism, including works by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Otto Müller, Max Pechstein, Emil Nolde, and Conrad Felixmüller, the Fischer Collection elevated VMFA’s holdings in this area to international significance.