Spain was one of the most religiously and culturally diverse regions of medieval Europe, largely because of the presence of Islam. In 711 Syrian Muslims invaded the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa, struggling for power against Spain’s Christian rulers for nearly eight centuries following their initial arrival. Spain had become so thoroughly influenced by its Arabic population by the end of the first millennium that many of the country’s Christians and Jews began to share in the cultural and artistic practices of the Muslims. For example, Islamic craftsmen brought the practice of Arabic lusterware to Andalucía in southern Spain, and by the mid-13th century, an Islamic migration to Valencia answered the demand for this opulent craft in the Christian kingdoms of northern Spain. Although both pieces in this case come from the Christianized Spain that followed the expulsion of Muslims in 1492, they each retain elements of a thoroughly Arabized culture.